25/08/2019: Refucomm on unaccompanied child stabbed to death in Moria – UNHCR shocked

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25 August 2019

Στιγμιότυπο οθόνης (36)

It is small wonder that we are reading the very sad and unacceptable news that a child has died in Moria camp.

Greece has been condemned for years by human rights organisations and even the European Court of Human Rights for failing to protect these children and allowing them to live in an environment manifestly unsuitable for children.

Europe is also to blame, having found Greece legally responsible for their treatment of child refugees this year, and making a legal decision that Greece had breached Europe’s human rights convention forbidding inhuman or degrading treatment, their ‘consequence’ for the Greek authorities was a paltry 4000 euros to be paid to the kids.


Human rights organisations continued to report the horrendous conditions for children in these so called ‘safe spaces’ and still, nothing is done.

In the most recent report, from just a few days ago, our friends at Refugee Rights Europe evidenced the terrible conditions for child refugees in Moria camp.


“As of July 2019, the UNHCR reports a worrying 433 unaccompanied children living in the Moria RIC. A persistent issue reported by multiple rights groups is the practice of placing unaccompanied children in so-called ‘protective custody. ARSIS, a national child protection and advocacy organisation, reports on this issue as follows: In practice unaccompanied minors are put in protective custody in police stations and police detention facilities, spending up to two, and in some cases three months, in order to be placed in an appropriate shelter. For 2017, our professionals supported a total number of 353 minors in protective custody in the area of Thessaloniki only, while for 2018 this number reached 725 minors. Currently for this year we have supported 185 minors in those conditions. Hygiene conditions are extremely poor and the minors sleep in uncleaned beds and bedlinen, they are not provided with any non-food or clothing item, nor nutrition to live up to their development needs. There is no translator available by the police to explain to them basic procedures, and access to medical services is also periodic.”

These conditions were recently found by the European Court of Human Rights to be against Article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights.”


“During 2018, HumanRights360 observed that detention of UASCs was systematically imposed and was prolonged for periods ranging from a few days to more than two months, pending their transfer to an accommodation facility. UASCs and other vulnerable persons were detained in both police stations and the RIC of Fylakio in so-called “protective custody” in unacceptable detention conditions.63 In a large number of cases, including UASCs and other vulnerable persons, there are allegations of informal forcible removals (push-backs) from Greece to Turkey at the Evros river border.”

“The situation is particularly serious in Moria on Lesvos where children spend on average five months in the hotspot before they can move to the mainland. There is an acute lack of available care, particularly mental healthcare, coupled with pervasive substance abuse amongst children, who are often experiencing severe trauma. As reported by multiple organisations, the police do not appear to have sufficient (if any) safeguarding training for the care of vulnerable children and young people, nor is there availability of translators. One organisation reported an alarming incident in which a child reported to the police that he had been sexually assaulted. In response, the police apparently went to the section where the children are housed and shouted “who raped this boy”, whilst pointing to the individual who had reported the crime.”

“An anonymous organisation describes the conditions for UASCs in Moria as such: “The overall situation for unaccompanied minors is alarming. The living conditions in the shelters are substandard and supervision is minimal and not 24/7 (supervision even differs for the two children sections as they are coordinated by different organisations; a child in the one section may for example take a guardian to see a doctor until 11pm, whereas a child in the other section depends on the time a guardian works or decides to show up). There is a huge shortage of capable caregivers (supervisors) for children. Up to mid- afternoon only two coordinators and two nurses (although this is on paper, the nurses of the sections often do not work on the times they should be working) are present for more than 300 children. Furthermore, only one psychologist is available. After the public officials leave, the police are the only point of contact for the children. Their presence causes fear among the traumatized youth. Many officers deal tactlessly and with disinterest with the youngsters. They do not speak their language and have no experience in dealing with trauma. We even see abuse of power.“

Amnesty called Moria “A scar on the Conscience of Europe’ in this report.


Small wonder then that this has now resulted in the death of one, the serious condition of another and a child who will live with the consequences, for the rest of his life. Consequences, which undoubtably arise from the conditions these children live in and the lack of care they receive. Especially mental healthcare.

We call on Greece to act. To immediately ensure that the death of this child is a catalyst to improve conditions for child refugees.

The Greek government must end the detention of children in all circumstances. Children must be provided with adequate accommodation, separate from adults, care and support at all stages of the asylum process in line with the best interests of the child, national and international law, including the immediate application of an effective guardianship system of unaccompanied children.

We call on Europe to act and recognise their responsibility in ensuring. We insist that the EU and the EC, as architects of this terrible containment policy on the Greek Islands, take responsibility and put pressure on Greece to ensure that the human rights of children are respected and upheld.

This child must not be allowed to have died in vain.


If you would like to help to persuade Europe and Greece to make a change. Please copy and paste the text in this post and email it to;

The Prime Minister for Greece – Kyriakos Mitsotakis

Dimitris Avramopoulos
Migration, Home Affairs and Citizenship

Simon Mordue – Deputy Director General of the European Commission

The Greek Ombudsman

Council of Europe
Office of the Commissioner for Human Rights

Melissa Fleming – Chief Spokesperson for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees

Amnesty International

UNHCR shocked at death of Afghan boy on Lesvos; urges transfer of unaccompanied children to safe shelters

25 August 2019

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is deeply saddened by news that a 15-year-old Afghan boy was killed and two other teenage boys injured after a fight broke out last night at the Moria reception centre on the Greek island of Lesvos. Despite the prompt actions by authorities and medical personnel, the boy was pronounced dead at Vostaneio Hospital in Mytilene, the main port town on Lesvos. The two other boys were admitted at the hospital where one required life-saving surgery. A fourth teenager, also from Afghanistan, was arrested by police in connection with the violence.

The safe area at the Moria Reception and Identification Centre, RIC, hosts nearly 70 unaccompanied children, but more than 500 other boys and girls are staying in various parts of the overcrowded facility without a guardian and exposed to exploitation and abuse. Some of them are accommodated with unknown adults.

“I was shocked to hear about the boy’s death,” said UNHCR Representative in Greece, Philippe Leclerc. “Moria is not the place for children who are alone and have faced profound trauma from events at home and the hardship of their flight. They need special care in designated shelters. The Greek government must take urgent measures to ensure that these children are transferred to a safe place and to end the overcrowding we see on Lesvos and other islands,” he said, adding that “UNHCR stands ready to support by all means necessary”.

Frustration and tensions can easily boil over in Moria RIC which now hosts over 8,500 refugees and migrants – four times its capacity. Access to services such as health and psychological support are limited while security is woefully insufficient for the number of people. Unaccompanied children especially can face unsafe conditions for months while waiting for an authorized transfer to appropriate shelter. Their prolonged stay in such difficult conditions further affects their psychology and well-being.

Nearly 2,000 refugees and migrants arrived by sea to Greece between 12 and 18 August, bringing the number of entries this year to 21,947. Some 22,700 people, including nearly 1,000 unaccompanied and separated children, are now staying on the Greek Aegean islands, the highest number in three years.

For further information, please contact:

Boris Cheshirkov, Associate Comm/Public Information Officer, +306951854661, e-mail: cheshirk@unhcr.org

Stella Nanou, Assistant Comm/Public Information Officer, +306944586037, e-mail: nanou@unhcr.org

Websites:   http://www.unhcr.gr | http://www.withrefugees.org | estia.unhcr.gr/en/home/   

Σοκαρισμένη η Ύπατη Αρμοστεία από το θάνατο ενός αγοριού από το Αφγανιστάν στη Λέσβο: καλεί για την επείγουσα μεταφορά των ασυνόδευτων παιδιών σε ασφαλή καταλύματα

25 Αυγούστου 2019

Στο Κέντρο Υποδοχής και Ταυτοποίησης στη Μόρια της Λέσβου στεγάζονται περισσότεροι από 8.500 πρόσφυγες και μετανάστες – τέσσερις φορές πάνω από τη χωρητικότητα του κέντρου.

Η Ύπατη Αρμοστεία του ΟΗΕ για τους Πρόσφυγες (Υ.Α.) εκφράζει τη βαθιά της θλίψη για την είδηση ότι ένα 15χρονο αγόρι σκοτώθηκε και άλλοι δύο έφηβοι τραυματίστηκαν έπειτα από καυγά που ξέσπασε χτες το βράδυ στο κέντρο υποδοχής στη Μόρια της Λέσβου. Παρά τις άμεσες ενέργειες των αρχών και του ιατρικού προσωπικού, ο θάνατος του αγοριού ανακοινώθηκε στο Βοστάνειο Νοσοκομείο της Μυτιλήνης, όπου εισήχθησαν και τα άλλα δύο αγόρια. Το ένα υποβλήθηκε σε εγχείρηση λόγω της σοβαρότητας της κατάστασής του. Ένας τέταρτος έφηβος, επίσης από το Αφγανιστάν, συνελήφθη από την αστυνομία για το βίαιο περιστατικό.

Στην ασφαλή ζώνη του Κέντρου Υποδοχής και Ταυτοποίησης (ΚΥΤ) στη Μόρια φιλοξενούνται σχεδόν 70 ασυνόδευτα παιδιά, αλλά περισσότερα από 500 ακόμα αγόρια και κορίτσια διαμένουν σε διάφορα σημεία της υπερπλήρους δομής, χωρίς επίτροπο και εκτεθειμένα σε εκμετάλλευση και κακομεταχείριση. Κάποια από αυτά στεγάζονται μαζί με άγνωστους προς αυτά ενήλικες.

«Με σοκ άκουσα την είδηση του θανάτου του αγοριού», δήλωσε ο Αντιπρόσωπος της Υ.Α. στην Ελλάδα, Philippe Leclerc. «Η Μόρια δεν είναι μέρος για παιδιά που είναι μόνα τους και που έχουν υποστεί βαθιά τραύματα από όσα έχουν ζήσει στις πατρίδες τους και από τις κακουχίες του ταξιδιού τους. Χρειάζονται ειδική φροντίδα σε κατάλληλους ξενώνες. Η ελληνική κυβέρνηση πρέπει να λάβει επείγοντα μέτρα, ώστε τα παιδιά αυτά να μεταφερθούν σε ασφαλές περιβάλλον και να δοθεί ένα τέλος στον υπερσυνωστισμό που βλέπουμε στη Λέσβο και τα άλλα νησιά», δήλωσε ενώ πρόσθεσε ότι «η Ύπατη Αρμοστεία είναι έτοιμη να προσφέρει οποιαδήποτε στήριξη είναι απαραίτητη».

Η αγανάκτηση και οι εντάσεις μπορούν εύκολα να ξεσπάσουν στο ΚΥΤ της Μόριας, όπου αυτή τη σιτγμή στεγάζονται περισσότεροι από 8.500 πρόσφυγες και μετανάστες – τέσσερις φορές πάνω από τη χωρητικότητα του κέντρου. Η πρόσβαση σε υπηρεσίες, όπως η ιατρική και ψυχολογική υποστήριξη, είναι περιορισμένη ενώ η παροχή ασφάλειας είναι άκρως ανεπαρκής για τέτοιον αριθμό ανθρώπων. Ιδιαίτερα οι ασυνόδευτοι ανήλικοι μπορεί να είναι αντιμέτωποι με επισφαλείς συνθήκες για μήνες καθώς περιμένουν να εγκριθεί η μεταφορά τους σε κατάλληλο κατάλυμα. Η παρατεταμένη παραμονή τους σε τέτοιες δυσχερείς συνθήκες επηρεάζει περαιτέρω την ψυχολογία και την ευημερία τους.

Σχεδόν 2.000 πρόσφυγες και μετανάστες έφτασαν μέσω θαλάσσης στην Ελλάδα από τις 12 έως τις 18 Αυγούστου, ανεβάζοντας τον αριθμό των θαλάσσιων αφίξεων φέτος στις 21.947. Περίπου 22.700 άνθρωποι, μεταξύ των οποίων σχεδόν 1.000 ασυνόδευτα και χωρισμένα από τις οικογένειές τους παιδιά, βρίσκονται αυτή τη στιγμή στα νησιά του Αιγαίου, ο υψηλότερος αριθμός των τελευταίων τριών ετών.

Comunicado acoso defensor DDHH griego Panayote Dimitras



La Asociación Pro Derechos Humanos de España expresa su honda preocupación por el acoso judicial contra  el Sr. Panayote Dimitras, portavoz de la organización griega Greek Helsinki Monitor (GHM), y urge a las autoridades griegas a que adopten medidas para que cese esta situación.


No es la primera vez que el Sr. Dimitras es injustamente señalado en relación con su actividad de defensa de los derechos humanos, habiéndose visto inmerso en distintos procesos judiciales que luego se han archivado.

Según ha informado la Organización Mundial contra la Tortura (OMCT) en la actualidad está acusado de haberse apropiado, en mayo de 2016, de las compensaciones que el Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos reconoció en el marco de una denuncia que la mencionada organización griega había interpuesto contra el Estado por la excesiva lentitud de la justicia respecto a un ciudadano griego. Aunque el juicio oral contra el Sr. Dimitras ya ha sido pospuesto en varias ocasiones, su celebración se ha vuelto a señalar nuevamente para el próximo 16 de septiembre.

Esta acusación de apropiación ilícita vulnera los más mínimos estándares nacionales e internacionales del proceso penal, entre ellos el principio non bis in idem, dado que el asunto ya había sido investigado anteriormente, y archivado mediante resolución de 15 de abril de 2018. Concretamente, la resolución de archivo concluía que las compensaciones habían sido correctamente depositadas en la cuenta de la organización griega, en virtud del poder que se había suscrito entre el demandante y la organización. Además era de aplicación la resolución 456/2017, del Tribunal de Atenas, por la cual se había establecido un embargo cautelar de los activos del demandante.

En definitiva, que ya se había dictaminado que no había existido apropiación ilícita alguna, lo que impedía abrir otro proceso judicial por los mismos hechos.

Por si no fuera poco, se enfrenta a otra investigación por ocultamiento; supuestamente por no facilitar información detallada sobre un caso de racismo denunciado por la organización griega de la que es portavoz. Aunque él ya ha explicado que la única información de que dispone es la que se publicó en febrero de 2018 en un  artículo de investigación, el fiscal de primera instancia de Atenas mantiene abierta la investigación.

Este caso de hostigamiento judicial contra el Sr. Dimitras no es aislado, ya que la situación de los defensores de Derechos Humanos en Grecia se ha vuelto especialmente crítica en los últimos años, siendo objeto de actos de persecución de todo tipo, como detenciones arbitrarias y malos tratos.

Por ello, las autoridades griegas deben garantizar el cese inmediato del hostigamiento contra el Sr. Dimitras, y asegurar que se realiza una investigación imparcial y transparente de los procesos judiciales que tiene pendientes. Asimismo, se deben adoptar las medidas necesarias para cumplir las disposiciones de la Declaración de los defensores de los derechos humanos de las Naciones Unidas.

09/08/2019: UN Committee against Torture on Greece’s (non) implementation of Convention against Torture

Στιγμιότυπο οθόνης (7)

cat on greece 2019-01

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Document available also in word format here: cat on greece 2019.

Greece: Judicial harassment against Mr. Panayote Dimitras

Greece: Judicial harassment against Mr. Panayote Dimitras



 Judicial Harassment

The International Secretariat of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT), requests your urgent intervention in the following situation in Greece.

Description of the situation:

The International Secretariat of OMCT has been informed by the Greek Helsinki Monitor (GHM) about the ongoing judicial harassment against Mr. Panayote Dimitras, GHM Spokesperson and a member of OMCT’s General Assembly.

According to the information received, Mr. Panayote Dimitras is facing accusations of embezzlement and concealment of facts in two different cases of judicial harassment.

In the first case of judicial harassment Mr. Dimitras has been referred to trial for embezzlement/illicit appropriation. The trial has been postponed twice and is currently scheduled for September 16, 2019, before the 10th Single-Judge Misdemeanors Court of Athens. The accusation against him is related to two cases[1] against Greece before the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) which were supported by the GHM in accordance with the terms and conditions of a power of attorney signed between Spyridon Panagioteas and Panayote Dimitras.

The prosecutor’s accusation charges Mr. Panayote Dimitras with having illicitly appropriated in May 2016 the compensations awarded by the ECtHR judgments of October 4, 2016, and April 7, 2016. However, in May 2016, the first compensation was manifestly not yet awarded, while the second compensation had not been debited at that time to the GHM bank account as established in the power of attorney.

According to the same information, the judicial process so far has lacked the minimum national and international standards of fair trial and due process.

First, there is a violation of the ne bis in idem principle, since another case file based on the same allegations by Mr. Panagioteas through two other letters dated February 20 and 21, 2018, had already been archived on April 15, 2018, following a preliminary investigation. The investigation had concluded that Panayote Dimitras did not appropriate illicitly the compensations awarded by the ECtHR following the applications submitted on behalf of the plaintiff, as the sums were deposited on the basis of a legal power of attorney in the NGO account and on the basis of the 456/2017 judgment of the Magistrate Court of Athens according to which there is a provisional seizure of all assets of the plaintiff up to 20,000 euros. When the prosecutor decided to refer Mr. Dimitras to trial on July 30, 2018, she was aware of these decisions that had been submitted by Mr. Dimitras.

Secondly, the request by Mr. Panayote Dimitras to be allowed to make a statement during the preliminary investigation in this case to be able to react to Mr. Panagioteas’s allegations was rejected by the prosecutor.

Finally, despite the allegations of forgery of documents that was brought forward by the claimant, who argued the agreement to use GHM’s account to receive any potential compensation was not part of the power of attorney he had signed, the prosecutor’s office did not come up with forgery accusations against Mr. Panayote Dimitras, but decided to accuse him of embezzlement.

The second case[2] of judicial harassment against Mr. Panayote Dimitras also relates to his human rights activities. In one of the cases on racist incidents on which GHM filed a complaint, there was reference to an investigative article, which was available in the public domain[3]. On the basis of this publication, on February 2, 2018, the Naval Court Prosecutor asked the Athens First Instance Prosecutor to file a complaint for disobedience against Mr. Panayote Dimitras, accusing him of concealment of facts, due to the fact that he had not provided detailed information on the case. It is worth noting that Mr. Panayote Dimitras had repeatedly stated that there was no further detailed information in his possession apart from the investigative article. However, the request by the Naval Court Prosecutor became a basis for initiating a preliminary investigation, which is now pending for evaluation of the Athens’ First Instance Prosecutor.

The International Secretariat of OMCT recalls that this not the first time that ungrounded cases are being brought against Mr. Panayote Dimitras, recalling the case of alleged perjury in 2014, which was later dropped[4].

The International Secretariat of OMCT highlights that the situation of human rights defenders in Greece has been critical for years. Human rights defenders are consistently targeted for their legitimate work and face different types of attacks, surveillance, arbitrary arrests, detentions, ill-treatment, entry bans and expulsion[5].

The International Secretariat of OMCT expresses its deep concern for the judicial harassment against Mr. Panayote Dimitras and for the violations to his right to due process and urges the Greek authorities to conduct an impartial and transparent investigation into the above-mentioned cases with a respect of due process.

Actions requested:

Please write to the authorities of Greece asking them to:

i. Put an end to any kind of harassment – including at the judicial level – against Mr. Panayote Dimitras and more generally against all human rights defenders in Greece;

ii. In the meantime, guarantee Mr. Panayote Dimitras’ right to due process and fair trial, as protected under international law;

iii. Comply with all the provisions of the UN Declaration on Human Rights Defenders, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 9, 1998, in particular with its Articles 12(2) and 13;

iv. Ensure in all circumstances the respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and with international human rights instruments ratified by Greece.


  • Prime Minister of Greece, Mr. Kyriakos Mitsotakis, Email: mail@primeminister.gr
  • Minister of Justice Mr. Konstantinos Tsiaras Email: grammateia@justice.gov.gr
  • General Secretary for Justice and Human Rights, Mr. Panos Alexandis Email: ggdad@justice.gov.gr
  • Permanent Representative of Greece, Ms Anna Korka, Permanent Mission of Greece to the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland, Fax: +41 22 732 21 50; Email: grdel.gva@mfa.gr
  • Ambassador of Greece, H.E. Eleftheria Galathianaki, Embassy of Greece in Brussels, Belgium, Fax: (+32) 2 545 5585, Email: gremb.bru@mfa.gr
  • Permanent Representative of Greece, H.E. Andreas Papastavrou, Permanent Representation to the European Union (EU), Fax: +32 2 5515651, 5127912
    Email: mea.bruxelles@rp-greece.be

Please also write to the diplomatic representations of Greece in your respective countries.


Geneva – Brussels, August 7, 2019

Kindly inform us of any action undertaken quoting the code of this appeal in your reply.

[1] Panagioteas vs Greece Application No. 36672/12 and Kyraikou and Panagioteas vs Greece Application No. 34828/10 and 11674/11. Both cases concerned excessive length of legal proceedings involving Panagioteas.

[2] The case described the shooting of a migrant vessel, which was approaching the border guard patrol ship. As a result, several people were badly wounded. It is described as an unprovoked attack and a use of excessive force by the border guards. The details of the investigation of the mentioned case also revealed the deep-rooted issues of concealing the facts of violence and use of force by the border guards and despite the investigation being initiated, later on the case was closed and no border guard was pleaded guilty.

[3] The Intercept, SHOOT FIRST Coast Guard Fired at Migrant Boats, European Border Agency Documents Show, Published on August 22, 2016. Available here: https://theintercept.com/2016/08/22/coast-guard-fired-at-migrant-boats-european-border-agency-documents-show/

[4] See OMCT Urgent Appeal, Greece: Ongoing judicial harassment against human rights defender Mr. Panayote Dimitras, Available here: http://www.omct.org/human-rights-defenders/urgent-interventions/greece/2014/01/d22535/

[5] See OMCT’s Written Submission to the 35th Session of the United Nations Human Rights Council on the situation of minority rights defenders in Greece of May 25, 2017.

Created in 1985, the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) is the main coalition of nongovernmental organisations (NGO) fighting against torture, summary executions, enforced disappearances and all other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, as well as for the protection of human rights defenders. With more than 200 affiliated organisations in its SOS-Torture Network, OMCT aims at accompanying, reinforcing and protecting anti-torture organisations in particular in erosive environments and provides a comprehensive system of support and protection for human rights defenders around the world.

24 & 25 July 2019: Greece’s review by UN CAT [official transcript]

United Nations

Convention against Torture
and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Committee against Torture

Sixty-seventh session

Summary record of the 1761st meeting
(CAT/C/SR.1761 – Distr.: General – 31 July 2019)

Held at the Palais des Nations, Geneva, on Wednesday, 24 July 2019, at 10 a.m.

Chair:            Mr. Modvig


Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 19 of the Convention (continued)

Seventh periodic report of Greece

The meeting was called to order at 10 a.m.

Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 19 of the Convention (continued)

      Seventh periodic report of Greece (CAT/C/GRC/7 and CAT/C/GRC/QPR/7)

  1. At the invitation of the Chair, the delegation of Greece took places at the Committee table.
  2. Mr. Alexandris (Greece) said that, for the new Government, which had very recently taken office, the review of his country’s periodic report came at a time of transition in terms of decision-making, shaping of policies and new legislative initiatives. The fight against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment was a key priority of his Government.
  3. A policy to curb prison overcrowding through early conditional release schemes had been in place since the second half of 2014. The resulting 20 per cent reduction in the number of prisoners over the following two-year period had maintained the prison population at an affordable and manageable size. Other measures relating to prisons had included organizing educational, vocational, sporting and cultural activities for prisoners; heavily restricting the use of custodial measures for juveniles; granting disabled and seriously ill prisoners early release; and introducing legislative proposals to expand the use of community alternatives to imprisonment. Controlling the prison population was one of the main priorities of the current three-year strategic plan for the period 2018–2020, which sought to ensure respect for the human rights of prisoners and promote their social reintegration.
  4. The Ministry of Citizen Protection and the Hellenic Police Headquarters had made significant efforts to enhance their mechanisms for addressing violence and ill-treatment. Police officers were subject to strict disciplinary oversight and officers found guilty of acts that constituted torture or that undermined human dignity faced dismissal. Heavy sanctions could be imposed if such acts were found to be racially motivated. The Greek Ombudsman had been designated as the body responsible for investigating offences allegedly committed by law enforcement personnel.
  5. All persons deprived of their liberty were treated in a manner that respected their dignity. They were informed of their rights and permitted to contact their legal representatives and family members; and they had access to emergency health care, with particular attention being paid to vulnerable persons. The police and coast guard sought to ensure respect for human rights while managing the external borders of the European Union. Both bodies had been involved in search and rescue operations and had saved hundreds of migrants in danger at land and sea borders. Police officers were given specific instructions to protect the fundamental rights of migrants and refugees, particularly with regard to respecting human life and dignity, while upholding the principles of non-discrimination, non-refoulement and the legitimate use of force. All necessary steps had been taken to ensure that police procedures were conducted in accordance with national and international law. Police officers were constantly monitored and evaluated by their superiors to that end.
  6. In recent years, his country had seen an unprecedented influx of more than 1 million refugees and migrants. Although numbers had significantly decreased following the agreement reached between the European Union and Turkey in the EU-Turkey Statement of 18 March 2016, the Greek immigration system remained under intense pressure. Applications for international protection submitted to the Asylum Service had increased drastically since the Service’s establishment in 2013. On average, just under half of all applicants were granted refugee or subsidiary protection status. The Reception and Identification Service was responsible for identifying and registering non-European Union nationals and stateless persons entering the country and for providing information on the international protection, health care and psychological support available to all incoming refugees and migrants. The Service ran six Reception and Identification Centres located at the land border with Turkey and in the Eastern Aegean islands.
  7. The national authorities had carried out several cooperation projects and signed memorandums of understanding with international organizations and many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in an effort to manage the migrant inflows. The Ministry of Labour, Social Security and Social Solidarity had enacted a framework for the guardianship of unaccompanied and separated children seeking international protection. A specific module on the protection of fundamental rights and the prevention of torture had been incorporated into the training curriculum of the Hellenic Coast Guard and an internal disciplinary mechanism had been put in place to deal with complaints of human rights violations.
  8. Greece was pursuing a comprehensive and victim-oriented action plan to combat trafficking in persons. Standard operating procedures were in place to address challenges such as the early identification of persons at a high risk of becoming victims of trafficking and exploitation, particularly unaccompanied minors. The Office of the National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings focused on the identification, protection, rehabilitation and integration of potential victims. Human trafficking indicators were used to assess the vulnerability of migrants registered in the Reception and Identification Centres. The national referral mechanism operated a number of shelters for victims of human trafficking.
  9. His country had ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (Istanbul Convention) in 2018, and the Ministry of Citizen Protection and the Hellenic Police Headquarters had set up a new department to deal with domestic violence issues. The General Secretariat for Gender Equality had implemented the National Action Plan on Gender Equality for the period 2016–2020, which included the National Programme on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women, with emphasis on supporting women from vulnerable social groups and victims of domestic violence. A comprehensive law on substantive gender equality had been adopted in 2019, which introduced gender mainstreaming and gender budgeting policies.
  10. The police force had established offices throughout the country charged with investigating acts of violence based on race, sexual orientation or gender identity and with raising awareness among police officers and the wider public. Data-collection mechanisms had been implemented in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice, Transparency and Human Rights. The National Council against Racism and Intolerance, an interministerial and multi-stakeholder body, had been tasked with drafting a national action plan to combat racism and intolerance. A law had been adopted that laid down minimum standards on the rights, support and protection of victims of crime, in line with the European Union directive in that area. A number of initiatives had been developed to enhance the capacity-building of judges and prosecutors in diverse areas, such as dealing with racism and xenophobia.
  11. Mr. Rodríguez-Pinzón (Country Rapporteur) said that, according to alternative sources, the new Penal Code voted on by Parliament in June 2019 did not include a definition of torture in accordance with the Convention, as the Committee had requested in its concluding observations on the combined fifth and sixth periodic reports of Greece (CAT/C/GRC/CO/5-6, para. 9). Under the new Code, the definition seemed to apply only to instances of systematic torture rather than isolated cases. Furthermore, the new definition reduced the maximum sentence applicable to torture offences, retained the limitation period for such crimes and failed to refer to the consent or acquiescence of public officials. He would appreciate an explanation of the current status of the new Penal Code and he would welcome clarification as to whether the reported shortcomings were accurate. He wished to know why the definition of torture had not been brought into line with the Convention.
  12. Following its visits to places of deprivation of liberty in the country in 2017 and 2019, the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) had reported numerous shortcomings in terms of the treatment of persons deprived of their liberty, which included failing to inform detainees of their rights in a language that they could understand, denying such persons their right to contact relatives or access a lawyer and providing medical care only in emergency situations. The reports had also noted that protocols to be followed in the event of attempted suicide by inmates were lacking, no procedures had been put in place for the medical examination of new detainees and the privacy of detainees was not respected when they underwent examination in hospitals. He wished to know what measures the State party had adopted to tackle the issues highlighted by the CPT in line with its recommendations, and to enforce fundamental legal safeguards for all persons deprived of their liberty, including foreign detainees. He would be interested to know whether all persons deprived of their liberty were registered at the outset of detention and what steps the State party was taking to ensure detention registry entries were completed properly and in full. He would appreciate an explanation as to how the Government guaranteed the right of detained persons to be promptly presented to a judge.
  13. According to information available to the Committee, the revised Code of Criminal Procedure adopted in June 2016 provided for the same maximum period of pretrial detention as before, namely 18 months for adults and 5 months for minors, which conflicted with information given in the State party’s report (CAT/C/GRC/7, para. 22). He wondered whether the time limit on pretrial detention had indeed remained unchanged and, if so, he wished to know why the Law-drafting Committee had not amended that limit, particularly for minors. He would like to know whether there were instances where persons in pretrial detention were incarcerated with prisoners convicted of misdemeanours or commercial offences. He asked what measures the State party was taking to address the shortage of prison facilities and ensure that pretrial and convicted detainees were separated.
  14. He invited the delegation to comment on the reported disproportionate use of chemical substances to control groups of persons, abuse and excessive use of force by the police and persistent violence against refugees and asylum seekers, including unaccompanied minors, and to explain what preventive measures had been adopted.
  15. The State party’s conviction of just one perpetrator of torture was a cause for even greater concern in the light of the 25 cases of torture and 145 cases of physical attacks identified by the National Mechanism for the Investigation of Arbitrary Incidents (EMIDIPA) between June 2017 and December 2018. The vast majority of those cases involved the police, while the remainder involved the Hellenic Coast Guard. The CPT had also reported ill-treatment, particularly of foreigners, in police custody and in pre-deportation detention centres. Furthermore, EMIDIPA had identified shortcomings in the police investigations into such cases and had made recommendations to ensure their independence, impartiality and effectiveness. He wished to know what progress had been made in the investigations into the cases reported by EMIDIPA and the CPT, including whether proceedings had been launched and sanctions imposed on the perpetrators. He asked what specific measures, both judicial and administrative, had been adopted and whether victims were kept informed of the investigations and had obtained redress. He requested an update on the criminal proceedings against the police officers responsible for the killing of 15-year-old Alexis Gregoropoulos and asked whether his family had obtained redress or compensation.
  16. There were serious problems affecting the system for identifying migrant women who had been victims of sexual and gender-based violence, and it was reported that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex individuals who had suffered torture and sexual violence in their countries of origin had been detained without appropriate gender-based separation, leaving them vulnerable to abuse by other detainees, including rape. Measures to prevent sexual and gender-based violence at the reception centres known as “hotspots” were insufficient. He therefore asked what measures were being adopted to establish effective mechanisms to evaluate sexual violence, what was being done to ensure that female victims could report such violence to the authorities and access abortion and emergency contraception in a timely and effective manner, and what additional security measures were being introduced to prevent sexual and gender-based violence in hotspots. Noting the report’s lack of specific statistics on violence against women, he asked whether that omission was due to a failure to collect such data, or whether it had been an oversight.
  17. The Committee welcomed the State party’s ratification of the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Trafficking in Persons Protocol, as well as the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. He requested data, disaggregated by year, on the number of reports lodged by victims of trafficking and on the compensation awarded to them, and an update on the information on trafficking provided in the report.
  18. While commending the State party’s efforts to align its norms and practices with European Union standards on asylum and the reception of refugees, as well as the significant resources allocated to increasing its capacity to deal with the influx of refugees and asylum seekers, he noted that areas of significant concern remained. Despite the State party’s claim that it had never violated the principle of non-refoulement and that none of the very few people to be returned to Turkey had been asylum seekers, the Committee had received reports that informal forced returns, known as pushbacks, had occurred as recently as 2018 and 2019, with Greek security forces using violence to intercept and expel asylum seekers, including children and pregnant women. Furthermore, the authorities had undertaken administrative investigations into hundreds of cases without involving victims or the NGOs that had reported the incidents, and there was a lack of judicial investigations into the alleged ill-treatment and forced returns. He asked what measures had been taken to prevent the forced return of asylum seekers, whether the monitoring of officials patrolling the border in Evros had increased, why administrative investigations did not involve victims or those who had reported the incidents and whether judicial proceedings, including criminal proceedings, had been launched, particularly in cases of alleged torture or ill-treatment. He requested statistics on expulsions and returns, disaggregated by age, sex and ethnicity, as well as updates to the statistics provided in the report.
  19. Although the reforms to the asylum system were welcome, it was still beset by a number of problems. There were reports of months-long delays to access the system for submitting asylum applications remotely, leaving asylum seekers at risk of arrest, detention and deportation. There were also shortcomings in interpreting services, and 60 per cent of asylum seekers attended their initial interviews without legal representation. Few officials were trained to determine whether an asylum seeker was a victim of torture and therefore eligible for transfer from a hotspot to the mainland. Moreover, the system afforded greater guarantees to those on the mainland than those in hotspots. He asked what short- and medium-term measures were planned to address those problems, particularly in hotspots, and requested confirmation of reports that persons arriving from countries predetermined as sources of economic migrants were automatically detained and deported.
  20. Noting that the CPT had observed that foreigners’ and unaccompanied minors’ deprivation of liberty did, in fact, exceed 25 days, despite the assurances to the contrary given by the State party in its report, he asked what legal consequences existed in those circumstances and how such situations were avoided. He requested information on the number of extradition, return and expulsion cases during the reporting period in which diplomatic assurances had been obtained, including details of the countries involved. Lastly, he asked whether, between 2012 and 2016, the State party had rejected any requests from a third State for the extradition of alleged perpetrators of torture and whether, as a result, it had launched its own criminal proceedings against those individuals. If so, he would welcome information on each case, including the results of the proceedings.
  21. Mr. Hani (Country Rapporteur) said that it was vitally important to bring the definition of torture in the State party’s Penal Code into line with the definition set out in the Convention.
  22. He would appreciate additional information on the training courses developed and implemented to ensure that all law enforcement personnel were fully aware of their obligations under the Convention. He wished to know whether a system was in place to assess such programmes on the basis of the effective reduction of cases of torture and ill-treatment. He welcomed the training seminars for prison guards on subjects such as mental health and prisoner reintegration and wished to know the percentage of probation officers, prison guards, law enforcement officers and coast guard personnel who had received such training. He would be grateful for updated information on the restructured training curricula for prison staff announced in the report and whether it would include specific instruction on the Convention and not only generic information on human rights obligations. He wished to know if the planned train-the-trainer programme for prosecutors to be provided by the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe had actually taken place and whether the redesigned curriculum for prosecutors covered the inadmissibility of confessions obtained under torture.
  23. He would like to know whether clear instructions on the prohibition of torture similar to those provided to the Hellenic Coast Guard were also provided to other law enforcement personnel and if the instructions stipulated the sanctions for violations. He would like to know what training programmes on the Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Istanbul Protocol) were available for medical personnel and other persons working with detainees, particularly in the Reception and Identification Centres for migrants, and the number and percentage of doctors and other personnel who had received or were scheduled to receive such training. According to the National Commission for Human Rights, it had repeatedly proposed to provide training to law enforcement personnel on the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (Nelson Mandela Rules) and on the Istanbul Protocol but had not received a satisfactory response from the authorities. He wondered if the Government intended to remedy that lack of communication and consider accepting the training.
  24. He would appreciate information on the process and the frequency of inspections of Reception and Identification Centres and how such procedures prevented torture and ill-treatment, in the context of the new national legislation and the EU-Turkey Statement of 2016. He would like to hear the Government’s assessment of the actions taken pursuant to that statement, with respect to its obligations under the Convention.
  25. The Committee had received reports that the national preventive mechanism, established within the Office of the Ombudsman, did not have adequate staff or funding to fulfil its mandate under the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. The personnel came from other departments of the institution and had not received specific training on torture prevention through monitoring of places of deprivation of liberty. He would appreciate information on any plans to provide the national preventive mechanism with secure funding and appropriately trained personnel. He would like to know whether the budget was stable and regular and when it was received by the national preventive mechanism. He would be grateful for details on how the preventive mandate and the reactive mandate of the Ombudsman coexisted within the same institution. The national preventive mechanism also had a mandate to monitor forcible removals of foreign nationals. He wondered if that additional day-to-day work might hinder the capacity of the mechanism to find long-term systemic solutions under its basic preventive mandate.
  26. He asked how the Government coordinated the work of the human rights institutions that addressed the deprivation of liberty – the Office of the Ombudsman, which acted as the national preventive mechanism, and the National Commission for Human Rights, which was the national human rights institution – and how it ensured the effective implementation of their recommendations. He would like to understand how the monitoring by civil society organizations of places of deprivation of liberty, especially Reception and Identification Centres, worked in practice, and what was the role of the army in its coordination. Was there a long-term agreement for such monitoring or were the visits managed on a case-by-case basis? It would be useful to know the number of visits that had been carried out to detention centres, including Reception and Identification Centres, by the national preventive mechanism.
  27. Regarding general detention conditions, he would like to know the total number of prison doctors and the doctor-prisoner ratio. Given that rural prison facilities had been presented as a solution to prison overcrowding, he wished to know the criteria governing the transfer of prisoners from ordinary prisons to rural prisons and whether the experiment had been assessed for its impact on overcrowding, on detention conditions and on rehabilitation programmes. He wished to know the number of persons who had been detained in police stations and the average and maximum recorded durations of their detention. It would be useful to have statistics on the representation of minorities in the prison population.
  28. Although the Government had stated that migrants were not routinely detained, other sources had claimed otherwise. He would like to know the number or the percentage of migrants who were detained and any alternative measures taken or planned to reduce the use of such detention and ensure it became an exceptional measure, in line with international norms, such as revised deliberation No. 5 on deprivation of liberty of migrants of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention.
  29. He would appreciate information on the reception conditions in the Reception and Identification Centres. The Committee had received reports that tents designed to hold 12 persons were sometimes shared by as many as 100 and that one particular camp had a maximum capacity of 648, yet accommodated more than 3,600 persons. He would like the delegation to comment on those figures and indicate the average length of stay in such centres, which were not designed for long residence periods, and their capacity. He wished to know what measures had been taken to improve the unacceptable conditions, which had been shown by Médecins sans frontières to cause new trauma to individuals who might already have suffered torture and had been described by the European Court of Human Rights as constituting degrading treatment, in violation of article 3 of the European Convention on Human Rights and thus of the Convention against Torture.
  30. It would be helpful to have confirmation of reports that unaccompanied child migrants were held in custody for an average of 55–57 days in Reception and Identification Centres, and to learn what measures had been taken to rectify the situation, as such centres were not designed to accommodate children for long periods. He wished to know whether doctors received specific training on age determination techniques and whether they respected the principle of presumption of minority. He wished to know what was being done to address the lack of paediatricians on the islands where many children arrived, as reported by NGOs.
  31. He wished to know how many offences were punishable by life imprisonment and the number of persons sentenced to life imprisonment. He would be interested to hear the Government’s view on the “right to hope” endorsed in the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, the principle that persons sentenced to life imprisonment must have the right to have a review of the sentence after a reasonable period, to be informed of that possibility as soon as possible after sentencing and to have access to rehabilitation programmes.
  32. He was concerned by the lack of a clear legal basis for involuntary placement in a psychiatric institution, as reported by the CPT. The two medical opinions required were often provided by doctors working in the same institution, who rarely disagreed. Placements were not systematically reviewed after the initial six-month period and the rights of patients to be heard personally at such reviews and to be informed of their rights were rarely respected. Patients were held for longer than the prescribed periods and psychiatric establishments were overcrowded and made excessive use of restraints without medical justification. He wished to know what measures had been taken to remedy such problems.
  33. The Committee had received information about a new policy to transfer mental health patients to community-based psychosocial rehabilitation units. He would appreciate confirmation of that policy and wished to know whether the necessary safeguards were in place, including training and requirements for the non-governmental and private organizations involved to abide by the Convention and other human rights instruments. There could be no transfer of responsibility from the State to private actors, because involuntary placement constituted a decision of deprivation of liberty taken by the State.
  34. Given reports of a monitoring gap for psychiatric establishments, he wished to know whether civil society organizations were able to visit such establishments and whether specific training on psychiatric institutions had been provided to the personnel of the national preventive mechanism. He would appreciate more details on the amendments to the law on involuntary placement that were being drafted. He wondered if the planned integration of Korydallos Psychiatric Hospital for Prisoners into the national health system had been implemented and any initial technical problems resolved. He wished to know how the Government would ensure that the civil society organizations that would offer primary psychiatric care to prisoners had the necessary competence. Had the Government assessed its experiment with remote psychiatric services and whether it worked in practice?
  35. He asked whether the Government had implemented the recommendations of the CPT regarding the frequent and widespread use of ill-treatment by police to obtain confessions.
  36. Turning to articles 12 and 13 of the Convention, he welcomed the designation of the Ombudsman as national mechanism for the investigation of incidents of ill-treatment committed by law enforcement and detention facility agents, an independent complaints mechanism, as reported in paragraph 29 of the State party’s report (CAT/C/GRC/7) and para. 100 of the common core document (HRI/CORE/GRC/2018). He would appreciate more information on the complaints procedure, and on the statistical data provided in paragraphs 177 to 180 of the periodic report on cases of violence against prisoners and disciplinary procedures, since the figures provided were incomplete and gave the impression that the State party did not always know how many criminal cases of violence or abuse by police officers submitted to the competent prosecutor had been pursued. He asked how many complaints had been made, how many of those cases had been heard, and what decisions had been made in terms of both judicial and disciplinary measures. In order to address the disappearance of 502 Albanian children in the case of the Agia Varvara Foundation, the State party should cooperate with the Albanian authorities to establish an effective investigation mechanism.
  37. Recalling the Committee’s general comment No. 3 (2012) on implementation of article 14 by States parties, he would appreciate an update on the development of the programme to support victims of torture and ill-treatment and their dependants. Did the Greek Government intend to make a contribution to the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture? Clarification was needed of whether victims of torture and ill-treatment were able to claim compensation, and if so, statistics and details of the relevant legal and administrative decisions should be provided. He requested details of the compensation provided to the victims of human rights violations recognized by the European Court of Human Rights and the United Nations Human Rights Committee, and asked whether those victims had received a written apology from the chief of the public service involved, and whether measures had been taken to make the related disciplinary proceedings public. An update should be provided on the implementation of general measures recommended in the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, and further details should be given of the practice of setting aside a judgment to ensure proper application of the law. Noting that one third of migrants were also victims of torture or ill-treatment, he asked what measures had been taken to provide rehabilitation support to migrants.
  38. With respect to article 15, and in view of the vague wording of article 177 of the Code of Criminal Procedure on the prohibition of using illegally acquired evidence in proceedings, he asked whether there were plans to amend the law to specify that evidence acquired through torture could not be invoked in criminal proceedings. Information would be appreciated on the number of cases in which evidence had been dismissed because it had been obtained illegally. It would be helpful to know whether, in practice, judges asked all defendants whether they had been subjected to torture or ill-treatment in detention, and whether persons who alleged torture or ill-treatment were assessed by a legal medical expert in accordance with the Manual on the Effective Investigation and Documentation of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Istanbul Protocol). Statistics on that matter would be useful.
  39. Information should be provided about the legal framework criminalizing cruel, inhuman and degrading treatment, in line with article 16. Given that the national preventive mechanism considered centres for persons with disabilities to be places of deprivation of liberty, the delegation should explain how such places were monitored and whether the national preventive mechanism and civil society organizations were involved, whether staff received training on the provisions of the Convention and how infractions of its provisions were tackled.
  40. Information should be provided on how it was ensured that all body searches of prisoners were reasonable and necessary, and that they were performed using the least intrusive methods available, and whether the new cells constructed at Partas and Corfu prisons complied with the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (Nelson Mandela Rules).
  41. A number of persons claimed to have suffered harassment, persecution and detention by police and right-wing extremist groups on account of their activities in helping migrants as humanitarian workers or human rights defenders. He asked what action had been taken to end such harassment, and for information about the cases of Sara Mardini and Sean Binder, Mohammed Abbassi, Salam Aldeen, Manuel Blanco, José Enrique Rodríguez and Julio Latorre, and Panayote Dimitras.
  42. An explanation should be provided of the application of Act No. 4491 of 2017 on legal gender recognition with regard to intersex persons. In the light of reported violence against women from minority groups, he asked what measures had been taken to protect those women, particularly migrants and Muslim women. Information should also be provided on the action taken to tackle the reported racial profiling of Roma by the police and the overrepresentation of Roma in prisons. He asked what measures had been taken in response to two decisions by the European Court of Human Rights that had found the detention of children at police stations to violate their right to liberty and expose them to degrading conditions of detention. Data on the number of children detained in such conditions would be useful.
  43. In view of the ongoing development of an international manual on non-coercive investigation methods, he asked whether non-coercive investigation methods were used in the State party. Welcoming the State party’s role in the Alliance for Torture-Free Trade, he asked whether it had already begun work on that initiative.
  44. Mr. Heller Rouassant asked whether the recently formed Government of the State party envisaged any changes to human rights institutions or the approach to migrant and refugee issues.
  45. Ms. Belmir said that she would appreciate more information on reported cases of police violence against detainees from minority groups and minors. She also wished to know whether, in the light of the concerns expressed by the Committee about body search procedures in detention facilities (CAT/C/GRC/CO/5-6, para. 16), action had been taken to introduce non-invasive electronic detection methods.
  46. She would also appreciate receiving an explanation of the impact of the practice, described in paragraph 24 of the State party’s report (CAT/C/GRC/7), of allowing adult prisoners to remain in detention facilities for young offenders for work purposes, where they engaged in skilled jobs.
  47. Ms. Gaer, echoing the point raised by Ms. Belmir, asked specifically whether electronic methods were used to perform vaginal and anal cavity searches of women and men in prisons.
  48. The significant increase in attacks on migrants and Roma involving law enforcement officers gave cause for concern. With reference to the incident of April 2018 in Mytilene, on the island of Lesvos, in which it was reported that a peaceful refugee-led protest had been attacked by locals and many of the refugee protestors arrested, the delegation should explain what efforts had been made to address the incident and claims of ill-treatment by the police, and comment on information indicating that, despite the initiation of prosecutions for those attacks and the mass acquittal of the arrested refugee protestors, no testimonies had been taken, and that two of the persons accused of the attacks had been elected to municipal office.
  49. Mr. Hani said that updated information on the outcome of the public consultation on the new draft of the Correctional Code would be appreciated. The delegation should clarify whether appropriately qualified doctors, other than those working for the public health system or the military, could produce legal medical reports for victims of torture, given the provisions of Act No. 4540 of 2018. He asked for more information on the withdrawal of support allowances from persons with disabilities who were being held in prison.

The meeting rose at 12.45 p.m.

United Nations

Convention against Torture
and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

Committee against Torture

Sixty-seventh session

Summary record of the 1764th meeting*
(CAT/C/SR.1764 – Distr.: General – 31 July 2019)

Held at the Palais des Nations, Geneva, on Thursday, 25 July 2019, at 3 p.m.

Chair:            Mr. Modvig


Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 19 of the Convention (continued)

Seventh periodic report of Greece (continued)

The meeting was called to order at 3 p.m.

Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 19 of the Convention (continued)

Seventh periodic report of Greece (continued) (CAT/C/GRC/7; CAT/C/GRC/QPR/7)

  1. At the invitation of the Chair, the delegation of Greece took places at the Committee table.
  2. Mr. Alexandris (Greece) said that human rights had been included in his mandate as Secretary-General of the Ministry of Justice and that he intended to spare no effort to protect and promote them. To that end, he would seek the guidance of the Committee and other United Nations human rights treaty bodies.
  3. Ms. Kourti (Greece) said that individuals were informed of their rights and the reason for their detention as soon as they were taken to a police station; special assistance was provided to persons who did not understand Greek, and all necessary information was provided to foreign nationals who applied for asylum. Detainees had guaranteed access to legal assistance irrespective of the type of procedure they were facing. Where necessary, detainees in need of medical services could be transferred to local medical facilities for treatment. All detainees were subject to registration, which covered their identity, the reasons for their detention and their health condition, and was continuously monitored. Minors could be placed in protective custody, on the orders of the prosecution service, while awaiting placement in a facility for juveniles. Protective custody was not considered as detention or arrest.
  4. The use of violence during investigations was prohibited. Interviews were duly recorded in writing, while ensuring the protection of personal information, and were conducted with a court secretary or second investigator present. Every step of an investigation was also recorded. Complaints of ill-treatment by police officers lodged by foreign nationals were investigated as a matter of priority. Crowd control measures, such as tear gas, were used only in open spaces and when considered absolutely necessary to protect police personnel and restore public order. Police personnel who committed human rights violations were held accountable by the criminal justice system and were also subject to strict disciplinary procedures. In addition, the Greek Ombudsman, as the national mechanism for the investigation of arbitrary incidents, investigated cases of misconduct and abuse of power by law enforcement bodies, thus serving as a further guarantee of the independence of investigations.
  5. In 2018, 29 administrative inquiries had been ordered in connection with complaints of torture and ill-treatment during police detention. Disciplinary proceedings had been terminated in seven of the cases and were pending for the rest. No criminal charges had been laid in 24 of the cases, while a police officer had been tried and acquitted in 1 case; the remaining cases had been referred to the prosecution service. Between 2017 and the present day, the Greek Ombudsman had dealt with more than 370 cases, 244 of which remained under examination. In three of the cases, lesser penalties had been imposed on the police officers involved. Every effort was made to avoid exceeding the limitation period applicable to cases of torture and ill-treatment. Disciplinary proceedings could be reopened when the officer concerned faced a fine or dismissal and the penalty imposed by the criminal court was also dismissal. In keeping with the Government’s zero-tolerance policy regarding human rights violations, instructions had been issued to all police personnel to preserve human life and dignity and prevent discrimination and torture. Non-compliance carried strict disciplinary sanctions.
  6. The curriculum of the Police Academy included courses on human rights. Seminars, webinars and lectures on topics such as fundamental rights and police ethics, managing diversity, hate crimes, refugee law and border controls were offered to police officers as well. Over 250 police officers had received such training every year since 2015. Furthermore, frontline personnel who dealt with domestic violence and human trafficking cases were provided with ongoing specialized training.
  7. Mr. Karageorgos (Greece) said that the registration procedure was the same for foreign nationals held in pre-removal centres and hotspots, and a special system was being developed with the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (Frontex) to enhance the monitoring of migrants at all stages of the return process. As for fundamental legal safeguards, all migrants and refugees held in police facilities were informed of their rights and could communicate with the person of their choosing and access legal services throughout administrative procedures. They could receive visitors in designated private areas for a fixed amount of time that was the same for all. Communication with their lawyers was not time-barred, and efforts were made to provide them with free legal services through the Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund. Migrants and refugees were always examined by a doctor, regardless of whether they were identified or apprehended at the border or once inside the country. Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) provided essential support in that regard. It was not the police’s intent to violate the right to privacy during medical examinations; however, while migrants and refugees were under its responsibility, they could not move about unescorted. The presence of an officer was necessary only when the examination was performed in a space from which the person could conceivably escape.
  8. Complaints of ill-treatment during arrest or preliminary investigation were referred to the prosecution service or the competent lower court and had to be investigated by police officers belonging to a different unit than the one accused, in addition to the prosecutorial and judicial authorities. Reception facilities were equipped with metal detectors, which were used to inspect people and their belongings. Body searches were performed only when mechanical tools were broken or inadequate, for example in the search for drugs.
  9. Greece expended significant efforts to effectively control its borders in accordance with European Union and international law, with the technical support of various European agencies. When migrants were detected making an irregular crossing, all the usual procedures, namely apprehension, registration and custody, were applied. Under the readmission agreement with Turkey, the Greek authorities submitted a readmission request to their Turkish counterparts provided that no decision on an asylum application or other administrative procedure was pending with regard to the person concerned. Greece strived to enhance cooperation with Turkey on the implementation of the agreement. The possibility of breaches of the principle of non-refoulement was virtually eliminated by the presence of specialized Hellenic Police officers and staff from European Union member States at the borders. Nevertheless, any allegations of such a breach were thoroughly examined by the competent police service, as well as the Greek Ombudsman, who also monitored return operations. While some allegations of breaches had been confirmed, they should not overshadow the considerable efforts made to appropriately serve the thousands of migrants who were identified at the borders or were rescued from treacherous conditions along the Evros River.
  10. Regarding the incident of April 2018 on Lesvos island, the police had acted in accordance with their role to preserve the peace and bring to justice anyone who committed an unlawful act. On Samos island, tensions between groups of migrants or refugees occasionally escalated, causing concern for their well-being and that of the local inhabitants. In such situations, the police acted to protect the life and property of all individuals involved, using proportionate force where necessary. There was only one officially recognized minority in Greece, namely the Muslim minority in Thrace. The police did not resort to ethnic profiling of Roma, who were Greek citizens and enjoyed the same rights under national law.
  11. Ms. Kaplani (Greece), quoting from article 137A, said that the Penal Code defined as torture acts committed for a number of specific purposes, and provided for acts of physical or psychological violence that did not constitute torture per se but were nonetheless punishable and were considered a serious offence when they resulted in the victim’s death. In keeping with the general goal of reducing prison terms, the penalty for torture had been lowered to a term of 5 to 15 years’ imprisonment so as to ensure that perpetrators were effectively punished in accordance with the seriousness of the offence and did not ultimately avoid serving their full sentence owing to early release. Under the reform of penalties, the possibility of converting prison terms into pecuniary penalties had been abolished. Amendments to the Penal Code had introduced motives based, inter alia, on race, religion, ethnicity, sexual orientation and disability, as aggravating circumstances in relation to any offence. Furthermore, particular cruelty in the commission of an offence and the fact that a victim was unable to protect him or herself also had a bearing on the calculation of the penalty. The limitation period for acts of torture was 15 years, or 20 years when the act resulted in the death of the victim. The limitation was not intended to diminish the seriousness of the offence; on the contrary, it had been set to preserve legal certainty and to ensure that perpetrators were convicted on the basis of untainted evidence.
  12. Between 2012 and 2018, six cases of torture had been brought before the courts, leading to five convictions. Under article 137 (9) of the Penal Code, victims of torture and ill-treatment were entitled to sue the perpetrator and the State for compensation for the physical and psychological harm suffered and for property damage. The Integrated Civil and Penal Justice Case Management System, which had been rolled out in the four districts accounting for the majority of court cases, was designed to manage workflows, monitor the progress of cases and generate statistics and reports. The Ministry of Justice planned to expand its use to the rest of the country, though the System would have to be modified once the amended Penal Code entered into force. The authorities would endeavour to include data on compensation in the System.
  13. Criminal proceedings in connection with the case of Alexis Gregoropoulos were nearing completion. The court of appeal was expected to render a decision later that month. The victim’s mother and sister had eventually reached a settlement with the State for approximately 1 million euros, which had been disbursed in late 2017.
  14. The initial and in-service training of judges and prosecutors was a high priority for the Ministry of Justice. Further courses, including a programme on racism and seminars on migrants and refugees, the protection of minorities, persons with disabilities, minors, rulings of the European Court of Human Rights and trafficking, had been provided since 2017 pursuant to an agreement between the Supreme Court and the Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. A special course on trafficking offences had been introduced in the curriculum of the National School of Judges in 2019, and a capacity-building unit had been set up in the Office of the Supreme Court Prosecutor in February 2018. Finally, judges and prosecutors took part in training sessions on various topics held by the European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Training, the European Judicial Training Network and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.
  15. Diplomatic assurances in extradition cases tended to be given at the time of submission of the extradition request and contained guarantees regarding the motives of the request and the treatment of the person in the requesting State. Greece typically denied extradition in cases where assurances were not provided or when the requesting State was not a party to the relevant conventions.
  16. Providing a statistical overview of cases of domestic violence, she said that the number of cases had risen between 2016 and 2018, but that the proportion of convictions had increased as well. The proportion of cases that went to mediation or in which legal aid was granted had fallen.
  17. Mr. Koulouris (Greece) said that detention was one of three measures available in the pretrial phase, together with restrictions and house arrest with electronic monitoring. It was intended as a last resort in the case of the most serious offences and when a person was likely to reoffend or fail to appear in court. About a quarter of all inmates were in pretrial detention; the continued appropriateness and duration of the measure were reviewed by the judicial authorities every six months or at the inmate’s request. Pretrial detention could never exceed 18 months, or 6 months in the case of juveniles between the ages of 15 and 18 years. There were currently nine juveniles, all boys, being held in pretrial detention or as convicted offenders. They were all in the same institution, separated from the adult inmates. The prison system did not currently allow for the separation of pretrial detainees and convicted offenders, owing in part to the prioritization of other separation criteria, namely age, sex, ethnicity, health and religion. In line with recommendations of the United Nations and the Council of Europe, Greece did not have a prison construction policy; therefore, the distribution of the prison population was conditioned by existing infrastructure and efforts to control its size.
  18. Since 2017, about 30 per cent of custodial and perimeter security officers had attended seminars on security issues, crisis management and social reintegration of prisoners. Training in operational security had been provided to more than 155 staff with the technical assistance of the Ministry of Justice of Austria, while administrative and health-care staff and probation officers had been provided with training, including on the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners (Nelson Mandela Rules), in cooperation with the Council of Europe.
  19. The number of prisoners had been reduced by 20 per cent between 2014 and 2017 and had stabilized at between 10,000 and 10,500, though a recent uptick indicated that the potential of emergency early release measures was nearing exhaustion. The reorganization of the sentencing system and the reform of penalties were expected to help keep the prison population at a manageable level. The lower numbers improved detention conditions, in combination with the introduction of a range of educational, vocational, therapeutic and leisure activities for prisoners and the gradual enhancement of contact with the outside world.
  20. The draft Penitentiary Code had been submitted for public consultation but had not been forwarded to the Hellenic Parliament because the former Minister of Justice, Transparency and Human Rights had decided to prioritize the amendments to the Penal Code and Code of Criminal Procedure.
  21. Ms. Konsta (Greece) said that, to avoid invasive body searches, prisoners, staff and visitors were subject to metal detector searches and conventional drug tests in all prisons, while electronic drug detectors were also employed in certain establishments. In the event of the detection of illicit substances or items, the individual in question was transferred to a public hospital for the appropriate examinations. As a disciplinary measure, on the order of a public prosecutor, prisoners could be placed under close supervision in a special area of the prison for a period of 3 days while, for the most serious disciplinary offences, they could be held in solitary confinement for up to 10 days. Guidance had recently been issued to prison directors on their legal obligations regarding the cumulative effect of such measures on prisoners. Solitary confinement was only to be used in exceptional circumstances and was to be avoided when disciplining juvenile prisoners.
  22. With regard to sentenced prisoners with disabilities, such individuals were eligible for early conditional release on the basis of their disability. Their condition was also taken into consideration when allocating cells and work placements. Over the previous years, agricultural prisons had been used as a means of alleviating the burden on the country’s other prisons and of facilitating the social reintegration of prisoners. Prisoners were transferred to such facilities at their own request; the transfer decision was taken on the basis of the length of their sentence, the condition of their health, their disciplinary record and their social needs.
  23. Life sentences were being served by around one in nine convicted prisoners in Greece. Regarding their right to hope, those individuals had the right to appeal their sentence, were eligible for conditional release and, more generally, received the same treatment as other prisoners in terms of work and education opportunities, prison leave and participation in constructive activities.
  24. Ms. Christea (Greece) said that the national asylum system had undergone a major overhaul since the establishment of the Asylum Service in 2011. When the latter had become fully operational on 7 June 2013, the responsibility for managing the procedure for determining refugee status had passed from the police to the civil authorities. Since 2016, the Service had been working in close consultation with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to bring its work into line with international standards.
  25. Although the number of migrants arriving at the country’s borders had decreased since 2016, Greece remained under disproportionate migratory pressure. By 30 June 2019, approximately 235,000 claims for international protection had been registered by the Asylum Service and, according to recent data from the Statistical Office of the European Communities on first-time applicants, Greece was the fourth most common country of destination for asylum seekers. Since 2013, 450 victims of torture, rape or other serious forms of psychological, physical or sexual violence or exploitation had been granted international protection following an initial assessment of their application.
  26. Between 7 June 2013 and 30 April 2019, a total of 24,542 asylum applicants had been placed in detention. Third country nationals or stateless persons held in detention facilities or present at border crossing points received information on the possibility to submit an application for international protection. The Asylum Service, in cooperation with other stakeholders, ensured the provision of information on the possibility to submit an application for international protection and interpretation services were made available to facilitate that process. Where possible, organizations and persons providing advice and counselling to foreigners or stateless persons were given effective access to border crossing points. According to Greek legislation, foreigners or stateless persons who applied for international protection could not be held in detention for the sole reason that they had submitted an application for international protection and that they had entered irregularly or had stayed in the country without a legal residence permit. Fair and impartial treatment was guaranteed for all asylum seekers and appropriate operational criteria were applied to ensure that internationally specified safeguards were respected. The services of around 310 interpreters, working in a variety of languages, were provided on the Greek islands and continuous training was conducted with the personnel of the Asylum Service on subjects including evidence assessment, vulnerability assessment and the identification of torture victims.
  27. Ms. Siozou (Greece) said that support services, including psychosocial consultations, legal counselling and accommodation, were provided for women who suffered from multiple discriminations and their children. An interministerial protocol had been signed, defining a procedure for the identification of refugee women who were victims, or potential victims, of domestic violence. Under the protocol, which had been commended by the European Commission, 612 refugee women had benefited from counselling services, while 44 migrant women and 54 children had been provided with safe accommodation in shelters. The Government had also established a bilateral partnership with the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Greece, which had led to the development of a number of joint initiatives to strengthen support for women refugees and their children in the country. Those included the publication of a brochure offering information on the services provided in each region and the translation of documentation on accommodation services into Arabic, Farsi, French, Urdu and Sorani. Similar projects to improve the protection of migrant women had also been initiated in partnership with the European Union.
  28. National legislation on domestic violence had undergone several amendments since the country’s ratification of the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (Istanbul Convention) in 2018. For example, the offences of stalking and female genital mutilation had been criminalized and forced marriage had been added to the potential purposes of trafficking in human beings. Furthermore, foreign victims of domestic violence who reported an incident to the competent authorities were now protected from deportation. The groups protected by the provisions of the above-mentioned legislation included persons living together under a civil partnership, cohabiting or non-cohabiting partners and their children, divorced spouses, and members of a dissolved civil partnership.
  29. Ms. Stamkopoulou (Greece) said that all foreigners entering Greece irregularly and without legal documentation were sent to Reception and Identification Centres, where they were registered and underwent initial screening and nationality assessment procedures. Only under rare circumstances did the time taken for that initial registration exceed the 25 days allocated by law. That period could be extended if it was considered to be in the best interests of unaccompanied minors.
  30. Since the EU-Turkey Statement of 2016, the average length of stay at the centres had varied between two and nine months. Unaccompanied minors had been known to stay for up to eight months at centres on the islands of Lesvos and Samos, where processes ran more slowly owing to the high volume of migrant arrivals. The Government placed special emphasis on the support provided to migrant children. While staying at the centres, minors were placed in special safe zones where they benefited from additional security measures, the attention of dedicated personnel and the provision of recreational and educational activities. They were then transferred from the centres to special accommodation facilities on the islands or the mainland.
  31. The Reception and Identification Service worked in partnership with the Hellenic Police, the Hellenic Coast Guard and the Ministry of Health to ensure that the centres under its administration were safe and secure. The police were authorized to intervene in the event of violent incidents, while victims of violent treatment or crimes could address their complaints to the centre’s psychologists and social workers or to the local police branch. Each centre had a designated focal point for gender violence issues, who immediately reported all such incidents to the police. Any victims of rape or sexual harassment were taken to hospital, where they underwent a medical examination in accordance with the country’s protocol for clinical management of rape. If the victim was a minor, the case was also reported to the competent public prosecutor.
  32. Various measures had been taken to address the issue of overcrowding at the Centre on the island of Samos, including the improvement of the existing infrastructure, the transfer of vulnerable persons to the mainland and plans to relocate the Centre to a more suitable facility. The Reception and Identification Service placed great importance on the protection of the human rights of migrants and refugees. It therefore carried out special training courses for its frontline personnel on subjects including sexual violence, human trafficking, domestic violence, the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer and intersex (LGBTQI) persons, and vulnerability and health issues. A total of 131 employees had been trained over the course of 76 specialized seminars.
  33. Mr. Fotopoulos (Greece) said that all unaccompanied minors underwent a provisional medical and psychosocial assessment. That procedure also included age determination techniques involving the analysis of anthropometric measurements in consideration of variations of ethnicity, race, nutritional intake and socioeconomic background. If the results were inconclusive, the minor was referred to a public hospital for further examination. In case of doubt, the person in question was regarded as a minor.
  34. In 2018, the Ministry of Health had issued a circular to all psychiatric institutions in the country on the subject of patient injuries. The institutions were instructed that all injuries must be recorded in both the patient’s medical record and a special record, that the doctor examining the patient should indicate whether the injury was indicative of possible ill-treatment or violence, and that all medical reports must be brought to the attention of the relevant prosecutor. In addition, the Ministry of Health had informed all private psychiatric institutions that the use of restraints was not permitted on their premises.
  35. Regarding involuntary placement in psychiatric institutions, work had begun on a draft law integrating the recommendations of the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment. Those included the implementation of the two distinct categories of “involuntary treatment in the community” and “involuntary hospitalization”, ensuring the objectivity of medical expertise through the provision of two separate psychiatric opinions for each case, holding court hearings in psychiatric institutions, providing patients with full information on their rights and a copy of any court decision on their involuntary placement, the application of a maximum hospitalization period of four months and the introduction of special provisions for minors in need of involuntary hospitalization.
  36. Prisons now benefited from the presence and services of permanent medical staff, while the medical offices at those institutions worked in consultation with the regional services of the health-care system. Furthermore, a number of doctors carried out visits to custodial institutions that had been contracted to provide prison services. With reference to the Committee’s specific question, the planned integration of Korydallos Psychiatric Hospital for Prisoners was still pending.
  37. Ms. Avraam (Greece) said that the new curriculum of the Hellenic Coast Guard Academy included training on the Convention against Torture. The training focused on methods of recognizing and identifying torture victims by observing behavioural and physical indicators, and placed particular emphasis on the attention provided to vulnerable groups such as torture survivors, victims of trafficking, pregnant women and children. The Hellenic Coast Guard also benefited from the cooperation of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in training matters and was in the process of training eight of its officials to become fully accredited human rights experts capable of delivering the curriculum. In the future, it also intended to develop an e-learning programme on human rights with a dedicated chapter on the Convention.
  38. Mr. Kofinas (Greece) said that, in 2018, the Government had adopted legislation establishing a mechanism for the appointment of guardians of unaccompanied minors. Those guardians were responsible for attending to the basic needs of unaccompanied minors, including representing them in administrative and judicial procedures. Suitable applicants were placed on a register of professional guardians and appointed by the competent public prosecutor. Inclusion on the register was dependent on the individuals meeting a series of criteria detailed in the above-mentioned legislation.
  39. Unaccompanied minors arriving in Greece were housed either in hotels, in cooperation with the International Organization for Migration, or in supervised apartments. Approximately 90 of the children who had disappeared from the Agia Varvara Foundation had been returned to their families in Albania, while approximately 65 had been placed in Greek social care centres or foster families. Efforts to prevent trafficking in persons would be stepped up, in cooperation with the Office of the Ombudsman and civil society stakeholders, through centralized administration of social care units, improved registration of data and action to prevent victimization of minors.
  40. With regard to the alleged withdrawal of support allowances from persons with disabilities who were being held in prison, a recent circular had established that detainees with disabilities were to be considered beneficiaries of disability benefits, given that jails were not hospitals offering medical treatment. In 2018, some 372 labour inspections had been carried out jointly by the Labour Inspectorate and the police, resulting in 113 administrative sanctions for violations of labour law in areas including undeclared work, workers’ pay and employment of minors without proper documentation. In 2019, some 347 inspections had been carried out, resulting in 82 administrative sanctions. Labour Inspectorate staff had attended training seminars on forced labour and how to combat trafficking in persons.
  41. Mr. Alexandris (Greece) said that there was no overlap of responsibilities between the different mechanisms operating under the Office of the Ombudsman. The Office had a broad mandate that was both preventive and reactive; it could receive complaints by individuals and also act on an ex officio basis. Efforts would continue to be made to ensure that the resources of the Office would allow the effective discharge of all its responsibilities. The National Commission for Human Rights – which had been established in full conformity with the Paris Principles – had a different mandate and did not handle individual complaints.
  42. Mr. Moskoff (Greece) said that the Office of the National Rapporteur on Trafficking in Human Beings was seeking to involve a greater number of frontline professionals in a more inclusive identification system for the early assistance of potential and presumed victims. Collaboration between law enforcement and the national referral mechanism was based on a “social” approach to the identification of victims that was informed by trauma and vulnerability considerations. Psychologists, social workers and other frontline professionals, for example in hospitals and labour inspectorates, provided valuable early assistance in that process. The Office of the National Rapporteur was working on an inter-agency national action plan aimed at, inter alia, reducing demand for trafficking in persons, early prevention of trafficking and raising public awareness of the issues involved. That human-rights based approach was similarly reflected in the way Greece reacted to challenges posed by the rulings handed down by the European Court of Human Rights, for example in Chowdury and Others v. Greece. That ruling had led to the stepping up of training and awareness-raising campaigns to prevent similar situations from occurring again, and the introduction of indicators to enable the Labour Inspectorate to better identify vulnerable persons. Following the case of the children who had gone missing from the Agia Varvara Foundation, a bilateral agreement on the humanitarian repatriation of children had been concluded with Albania, and two bilateral meetings with that country had been held. In mid-July 2019, representatives of his Office had met with the Albanian Deputy Minister of the Interior to discuss a possible agreement with Albania and two other neighbouring countries on transnational case management and capacity-building for frontline professionals, in order to better protect and assist potential victims of trafficking.
  43. Mr. Rodríguez-Pinzón said that the definition of torture was still problematic. It was incompatible with the definition in the Convention, since the description of torture as a “planned” act in the Criminal Code could restrict the scope of the crime and possibly exclude isolated offences. He would appreciate clarification of whether rape was classified as torture. He would also welcome confirmation of whether the maximum prison sentence for the crime of torture had been reduced from 20 to 10 years. Similarly, he wished to know more about the custodial sentences handed down in the five proceedings related to torture mentioned by the delegation. Had the five sentences in question been handed down by a first-instance court, for example, or were they final judgments? Also, did they all involve the crime of torture under article 137A of the Penal Code, or did some concern other crimes, such as ill-treatment? He would appreciate specific details of the sentences handed down.
  44. He wished to know what checks were in place to ensure that detention registers in prisons, police stations and migrant detention centres could not be altered after the fact. He would also like to know if a central database was kept in that regard, covering all three types of detention register.
  45. He had been concerned at the reports from various quarters regarding the excessive use of force by law enforcement officers against foreign detainees, and the lack of investigation thereof. The problem had been highlighted, for example, in the decision handed down on 11 July 2019 by the European Court of Human Rights in Sarwari and Others v. Greece. He called upon the State party to investigate such allegations in a more effective manner.
  46. It was important to provide all fundamental legal guarantees to detainees, including the guarantee of privacy for detainees undergoing medical examinations in public hospitals, in all circumstances. After listening to the delegation’s replies in that respect, he had the impression that that was not the case.
  47. He had been concerned at the reports of informal forced returns, known as pushbacks, which affected various nationals, including Turkish nationals possibly seeking asylum. In that regard, he wished to know what the specific role was of the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (FRONTEX) in dealing with border controls.
  48. He still wished to know whether the family of the 15-year-old child who had been killed, Alexis Gregoropoulos, had obtained redress or compensation. He would also appreciate statistics relating to extraditions, including on the countries and the number of cases involved. He was very concerned about the alleged sexual assaults and rapes being committed against women, in Greece, in the reception centres known as “hotspots”; that was a very serious matter, for which preventive security measures needed to be implemented as a matter of urgency.
  49. He remained concerned at the reports of deplorable conditions in some of those hotspots, including overcrowding and a lack of basic facilities. The Moria Reception Centre on the island of Lesvos, for example, currently housed some 9,000 refugees, which was three times more than its intended capacity. Urgent, short-term measures were required to address that situation.
  50. Mr. Hani said he would appreciate information on the criteria used to calculate the capacity of the tents used at reception centres, bearing in mind reports that tents designed to hold 12 persons were sometimes shared by as many as 100. He also wished to know whether any investigations had been carried out into the excessive use of mechanical restraints in psychiatric institutions. He would be grateful for further information on the frequent and widespread use of ill-treatment by police to obtain confessions; in that regard he wished to know why the case concerning alleged ill-treatment in 2016 of three young Roma – Thanasis Panayotopoulos, Yannis Bekos and Vasilis Loukas – had reportedly been closed, despite the fact that the matter had been raised by the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights in a letter of concern to the Greek Government on 18 April 2017. He was still waiting for a reply to his request for an update on the implementation of general measures recommended in the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, and further details of the practice of setting aside a judgment to ensure proper application of the law. Similarly, he would appreciate the information he had requested on the specific cases of a number of human rights defenders who had alleged ill-treatment by the police.
  51. He would appreciate written data on complaints regarding police violence lodged with the national mechanism for the investigation of incidents of ill-treatment. He asked why only 3 out of 374 complaints had led to the imposition of penalties and would like details of those penalties. He would like more information concerning the detention conditions for minors held in police facilities. Conducting a medical examination of a detainee in the presence of a police officer constituted a violation of medical ethics and the privacy of the detainee in question. He asked whether another solution might be found to balance privacy and security issues, such as having the police officer wait outside the examination room.
  52. Recalling that international obligations prevailed over regional agreements, he asked what guarantees were in place to prevent refoulement and collective returns of migrants. He wondered what methods were used to calculate the capacity and personnel required for hosting migrants on the island of Lesvos, including migrant women and children, and whether staff were adequately trained to attend to those vulnerable groups. He would like more details on the special procedures for handling collective arrivals. He asked what measures were envisaged to reduce the duration of detention for migrant children in reception centres, which could be as long as 12 months and which went against the very nature of an asylum request. Could data be provided on alternative measures to returns, such as transfer and relocation of migrants?
  53. He wondered whether the Committee’s jurisprudence would be incorporated into training modules on the prevention of torture. He asked whether written data could be provided concerning the 502 Albanian Roma street children who had gone missing following their placement during the period 1998–2002 in the Agia Varvara children’s institution. He also wished to know whether the Government envisaged establishing a data-collection system concerning compensation and reparation awarded to victims of torture and ill-treatment, and whether data from the previous two years might be provided. He wondered whether extradition requests were assessed in the light of article 3 of the Convention and the Committee’s jurisprudence in that area. The principal aim of the Convention was to prevent, not redress, torture, and it was essential to carry out individual assessments of extradition cases, taking into account the general human rights situation in the destination country. It would be useful to know the percentage of prisoners who had been allowed to receive family visits. He asked whether prisoners serving a life sentence had the right to a judicial review after a certain period of time. Lastly, he wished to know whether the Government intended to contribute to the United Nations Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture.
  54. Ms. Belmir said that the issue of police violence deserved more attention from the Government, as reports that torture was used in law enforcement and interrogations were alarming. Reports highlighted police brutality and excessive use of force against detainees, minors, migrants and sex workers. Expressing particular concern about extreme violence used against a minor during a demonstration, she wondered whether such violence was “necessary and legitimate”, as reported by a police officer who had been questioned about the incident. She asked whether such reports were true and would appreciate further details in that regard.

The meeting was suspended at 5.25 p.m. and resumed at 5.40 p.m.

  1. Mr. Kastanas (Greece) said that cases involving the adoption of both individual and general measures remained pending before the Council of Ministers of the European Union. Compensation had been paid as “just satisfaction” in the context of individual measures recommended by the European Court of Human Rights. In response to recommendations of that Court to adopt general measures, the Office of the Ombudsman had been designated as the competent authority to review allegations of arbitrary treatment by the police. It had full independence under the Constitution and was responsible for a broad range of functions, and was therefore an effective body for the prevention of human rights violations. The question of issuing apologies to victims applied only in cases of recommendations for individual measures and relevant cases should be assessed on a case-by-case basis. The conclusions of the Human Rights Committee following complaints submitted under the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, unlike those of the European Court of Human Rights, were not legally binding. Complainants had recourse to national judicial reviews, mediation and out-of-court settlements before the national Judicial Council. Such channels, however, had not been utilized by the complainants involved in the cases brought before the United Nations Human Rights Committee, which dated back some 20 to 30 years. There had been very few recent cases.
  2. Ms. Kourti (Greece) said that to date the National Mechanism for the Investigation of Arbitrary Incidents had handled 374 cases, 244 of which remained under examination. In three cases, penalties lower than the basic sanctions had been imposed on the police officers concerned.
  3. Mr. Karageorgos (Greece) said that the lack of adequate medical facilities for detainees in medical centres and hospitals was due to concerns about a lack of security and the impossibility of guaranteeing that detainees did not escape. Registration of migrants, refugees and asylum seekers at hotspots consisted of a screening procedure to identify their migratory status and nationality, and record the data in the Eurodac system. Those data could only be amended upon investigation or request of the asylum seeker to ensure more comprehensive and accurate records. The data collected during registration of detainees in police facilities were generally not subject to amendment; amendments could be made, however, provided the commander-in-chief and the police headquarters were informed.
  4. With funding under the national budget, additional border surveillance staff were assigned to hotspots where necessary to strengthen security in the case of tension or riots. The national authorities operating at the Greek borders had exclusive powers to, inter alia, implement action plans for border surveillance and control, and perform migrant return operations. It was not incumbent on officers of the European Police Office or the European Border and Coast Guard Agency to carry out those operations; they were employed instead to enhance the capacity of the Greek authorities. In addition, an internal complaints mechanism attached to the European Border and Coast Guard Agency served as a safeguard for respect of fundamental rights. While the 2002 readmission protocol with Turkey dealt with cooperation between Greece and Turkey relating to the management of migratory flows and returns, the readmission agreement signed between the European Union and Turkey in 2016 addressed the humanitarian crisis related to the current migration flows. Returns and readmissions were not carried out on a collective basis but were subject to individual assessments, as provided for in the protocol and agreement.
  5. Regarding cases of police violence committed against minors during demonstrations, it should be noted that most participants in anti-fascist or anarchist demonstrations covered their faces; where an arrestee was found to be a minor once he or she had been taken to police facilities, the appropriate procedures were followed. In any case, the national police did not use inappropriate force with respect to demonstrators.
  6. Ms. Stamkopoulou (Greece) said that the registration procedure was standardized across all hotspots and Reception and Identification Centres and all data collected were recorded in a single online database, overseen by the national police. The numbers of migrants arriving on the islands of Samos and Lesvos were three to four times greater than those of vulnerable migrants who were transferred to the mainland or relocated on the islands. For example, in July 2019, 140 vulnerable migrants had been transferred or relocated from Samos, while another 496 migrants had arrived there. Some 100 volunteers and NGO staff worked on Samos. The migratory flows to the other islands were not as significant and thus the situations were not as serious.
  7. Ms. Kaplani (Greece) said that penalties for acts of torture or violence committed by the police were scaled in accordance with the degree of the offence. The basic term of imprisonment of 5 to 10 years was increased to 10 to 15 years where there were aggravating circumstances and a life sentence in the case of the death of the victim. There were plans to include data on compensation for victims in the Integrated Civil and Penal Justice Case Management System, which was being developed to improve the data-collection process relating to prosecutions of violent crimes.
  8. Regarding the case of Chowdury and Others v. Greece, which had come before the European Court of Human Rights in 2017, the Supreme Civil and Criminal Court (Areios Pagos), in 2019, had accepted the application for the cassation of the acquittal judgment of the Patras Criminal Court, ruling that the Court had misinterpreted article 323A of the Penal Code. The ruling established jurisprudence for similar cases.
  9. Mr. Alexandris (Greece) said that his delegation looked forward to receiving the Committee’s concluding observations, which it would carefully examine and distribute to all relevant sectors of the Administration.

The meeting rose at 6.05 p.m.


27/07/2019: GHM and Ombudsman reports on Greece’s compliance with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [from UN CRPD website]

Second Greek Helsinki Monitor Report on Greece’s compliance
with the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities


The Greek Ombudsman’s Report on the implementation of the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities

Έκθεση του Συνηγόρου του Πολίτη για την εφαρμογή της Σύμβασης του ΟΗΕ για τα δικαιώματα των ατόμων με αναπηρία